How to Diagnose Tendonitis Around the Knee Joint

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Tendonitis is best described as the inflammation, irritation and swelling of the tendons that connect muscles to bones and joints. The condition can affect any tendon and almost any joint in the human body. The most common areas that tendonitis occurs is in the knees, shoulders, ankles, wrists and elbows. In this article we’re going to focus on the three types of tendonitis that affect the knee joint.

Before we take a look at the different types of tendonitis that affect the knee we need to cover some basic knee anatomy. The knee is the connecting joint for three main muscle groups; the hamstrings, the quadriceps and the calf muscle. The hamstring muscles are located on the back of your thigh, the quadriceps muscle is located on the front of your thigh and the calf muscles are located at the back of your lower legs.

The knee joint also comprises of three main tendons. These are the hamstring, quadriceps and patellar (knee cap) tendon. These tendons are some of the largest and strongest in the human body. We will look more closely at these tendons later in the article. For now, all you need to know is that there are three different types of tendonitis associated with the knee, one for each tendon.

Let’s take a look at how each of these tendons fit into the knee joint and how to tell if that particular tendon has developed tendonitis.

Quadriceps Tendon

It’s very common for the quadriceps tendon to develop tendonitis, especially in professional athletes. The quadriceps tendon runs from the bottom of the quadriceps muscle down the front of the knee underneath the patellar (knee cap). If you have quadriceps tendonitis you will feel the pain directly above your knee cap. In some cases, the pain may extend up the front of the leg. The pain will feel worse when you sit down, or bring your foot up towards your buttocks. This is because the quadriceps tendon and muscle have to stretch. You may also find if you have quadriceps tendonitis that the area where your quadriceps meet your knee cap there might be some redness and swelling.

Hamstring Tendon

Hamstring tendonitis is often misdiagnosed as another form of knee injury. This is because the area that gets inflamed is often quite small (despite the large size of the hamstring tendon) and is close proximity to the back of the knee. The hamstring tendon connects to the knee outside of the back of your knee joint. If you have hamstring tendonitis you will feel the pain either in the tendon on the outside of the knee or on the back of the knee. If you feel the pain in the outside of the knee it’s obvious that the pain is coming from the hamstring tendon, but if it’s behind the knee it’s difficult to tell because the hamstring tendon goes deep into the knee. The pain will be at its worst when you try to straighten your leg out, where the tendon is forced to stretch. You will also feel increased pain when you try to twist your foot or point your toes at your knees. Often the entire back of the knee is swollen, but in its early stages hamstring tendonitis will only swell around the outer area of the hamstring tendon.

Patellar Tendon

The correct name for the knee cap is the patellar. Patellar tendonitis is one of the most common forms of tendonitis and the most common form around the knee joint. The patellar tendon starts behind the patellar and extends down to the tendons in the lower leg. So if you were to look at your knee from the front, the quadriceps tendon enters the knee at the top behind the knee cap and the patellar tendon extends from behind the knee cap down to the lower leg area. When you have patellar tendonitis you will feel the pain just below your knee cap or behind your knee cap. You will probably feel the pain whenever you move your knee, in any direction. Sometimes you may hear a popping or grinding sound as you move your knee around. This is because the area is inflamed and the tendon does not have enough room to move.

So, the important points to note from this article are that there is three types of tendonitis that can affect the knee; quadriceps tendonitis, hamstring tendonitis and patellar tendonitis. These are three separate tendons. If you need any more advice about how to treat tendonitis see the links below. Tendonitis can be treated without seeing a doctor, but first you must accurately diagnose which tendon is affected. The next article I will write will be about treating tendonitis symptoms.

For information on all type of tendonitis visit the tendonitis information site, For advice on treating knee tendonitis see the knee tendonitis section.

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How to Cure and Prevent Varicose Veins Naturally

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To prevent and maintain varicose veins, you need to strengthen the walls of your veins. There are several natural treatments available today that will cure and prevent varicose veins without the use of drugs or chemicals.

The herb horse chestnut provides hope for those people with varicose veins. Horse chestnut has in it a natural chemical called aescin, which strengthens vein walls and prevents leaking.

In a study of 22 people with varicose veins, 22 percent of people given horse chestnut had decreased vein leakage, compared to an increase in vein leakage in the people who were given a placebo.

It is recommended that people interested in using horse chestnut to cure varicose veins take two to four 500-mg capsules of the herb daily.

Another thing found to help cure and prevent varicose veins is antioxidants. Antioxidants contain bioflavonoids that strengthen veins. People with varicose veins should eat antioxidant-rich foods, which include fruits and vegetables. The more colorful the fruits and vegetables, the better.

Acupuncture can also help varicose vein problems. Acupuncture reduces the size of varicose veins with no side effects. In one study, five treatments of acupuncture reduced the pain in most people with varicose veins.

Believe it or not, pineapples also contain a natural chemical that treats varicose veins. The chemical, called bromelain, reduces the swelling and soreness that are caused by varicose veins. Bromelain can be taken in capsule form.

Onions, apples, and black tea have also been found to help varicose vein problems. These foods have a chemical called quercetin, which is an anti-inflammatory. Quercetin also comes in capsule form. It should be taken together with bromelain for optimum effectiveness.

Another, simpler way of preventing and treating varicose veins is to simply put your feet up for 10 minutes per day. The idea is that your legs should be raised higher than your heart so that blood can flow away from your veins and give them a chance to get stronger. To do this, lie back and put your feet up on a coffee table or chair.

If this 10-minute-per-day break is hard for you to fit into your schedule, you can purchase a mattress wedge that raises the foot of your bed by several inches. This way you can help your varicose vein problem while you sleep.

Another solution is to wear compression stockings or an anti-embolism hose. You must get these fitted because if they are too tight they can do more harm than good. Compression stockings and anti-embolism hoses restore veins and help them function properly.

If these natural solutions fail to help a varicose vein problem, there are other, more invasive procedures, including: laser and low-level radiofrequency energy, sclerotherapy, TriVex, and endovenous ablation. These procedures may remove varicose veins but they can be expensive and inconvenient..

The above-mentioned treatments are simple, pain-free ways to deal with varicose veins. They can always be used on their own or as a complement to varicose vein removing procedures.

Michael Russell
Your Independent guide to Varicose Veins

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The Grumbling Gut

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There are a large number of diseases of the bowl and they all have different symptoms, but there is one constant with all of these diseases and that is inflammation of the bowl.

The digestive system is actually a very complex organ that has a finely tuned team of mechanical reactions mixed with chemicals. The team goes into action once food enters the mouth where it mixes with saliva, the food then moves to the stomach where it meets with digesting enzymes and other chemicals. The food mixes with the stomach secretions that are released; the mixture now moves into the small intestine, this is where new team members enter into the game. The liver and pancreas are now in action releasing digestive enzymes that break down the complex carbohydrates, fats and protein into sugars, simple fats and amino acids; these are now absorbed by the small intestine. The next team member is the large intestine or colon, the responsibility of this team player is to break down undigested food, fiber and water, as this mixture moves through the colon it is dehydrated by the colon cells becoming solid as it moves and turning into stool.

These diseases, such as inflammatory bowl disease (IBD), crohn’s, colitis, etc., have inflammation at the source of their problems. Inflammation is the bodies’ response to injury or illness, in the case of these diseases the inflammatory response turns on the bodies’ digestive track and actually attacks it. This means it is an auto-immune disease. There are only two areas where your intestinal system can go astray, either your bacteria or your chemistry or it could be both. Irritable bowl syndrome (IBS) is a general term used for all the conditions in this class. IBS has no one cause and no one cure.

Let’s take a look at the intestinal areas that can go wrong. The gastrointestinal system needs an optimum level of good bacteria or your chemistry will change. The main reason you lose your bacterial balance is the use of antibiotics, unfortunately we sometimes need these drugs in order to get infections under control, but the side effect of this type of medication alters the bacterial balance in the intestines. Once the body has lost its bacterial balance it takes some time for the disease to set in. The inflammatory response that the body sends to the intestines is designed to heal what ever damage it encounters. It can not heal a lack of beneficial bacteria so the inflammatory response can not do what it is designed for and instead begins to attack the intestines. Now that the damage is getting worse and the beneficial bacterial level is low, your chemistry begins to change and the foods you were able to eat before become your worst nightmare. You are now developing intolerance’s or an allergic reaction to certain foods and symptoms begin appearing at an alarming rate. This is the most humbling and humiliating disease ever, because in many cases having to run to the rest room 10 to 25 times per day is common. 1 in ever 5 people has this disease and the majority is women. Stress is also a major player in all the IBS diseases and the more stress you feel during the day the worse your disease will get.

Finding a way to control your level of stress is absolutely essential for your recovery; maintaining a low level of stress will help keep the disease from re-occurring later because once you have IBS you are always at high risk of it coming back to haunt you; your intestines will always be very sensitive to any unhealthy level of stress. Quite a few people find that Yoga is very calming and relaxing; yoga is designed to relieve stress, and calm the body and mind. There is more than likely a yoga class in your area.

There are ways in which to help yourself and believe it or not traditional treatments help this disease the most, the medications your physicians give to you all have different side effects that may cause you more complications. People must try a number of different things in order to find some relief from this horrible condition. Medication can work for a short time but offers little help for the long term due to the side effects; IBS can be with you for years and once you have it, even if you get better, your chances of reoccurrence are high. Your body has become allergic to some foods or types of foods, or it can be a large number of foods, it is extremely hard to know what to do or how to find the foods causing this condition. There is hope in using traditional herbs and fruits, many people have been turning to these because they have been effective in their long term recovery. A lot of these can be found in your local health food store. The first thing that needs to be done is to increase the level of your good bacteria, acidophilus supplements can aid in the re-introduction of beneficial bacteria. Cat’s claw is used to correct problems of imbalance in the small intestine, it helps to normalize beneficial microbes and reverse intestinal dysbiosis. A probiotic is an organism that is referred to as good or friendly bacteria. When they are ingested they help to maintain a healthy intestinal tract.

Methylsufonylmethane or MSM is a naturally occurring sulfur used to control infections of the intestinal tract. You can also try, Green food plus w/MSM-Supreme greens, this formulated product is packed full of antioxidants and gives the nutritional equivalent of 2 lbs of fresh vegetables. There are a number of other items such as colustrum, bee propolis, sea silver, chlorophyl, and juicing.

Let’s look at juicing; the body has trouble with the hard fibers in most fruits and vegetables due to the inflamed gastrointestinal tract that is no longer functioning properly, juicing actually removes the hard fibers in the necessary foods and still gives you the number two recovery need and that is antioxidants. You must take in a large number of antioxidants every day to fight free-radicals. Free-radicals are molecules or atoms that are missing an electron, antioxidants are either molecules or atoms that have an extra electron. You can not escape from free-radicals and the damage they do, they are in air and water pollution, in the junk foods we eat, and even in the medications we take hence the words “side effects”. Free-radicals go around attacking healthy cells in our bodies trying to steal the electron; anti-oxidants will give up their extra electron to a free-radical which in turn stops the attack on healthy cells. Now you can see the importance of taking in a large number of anti-oxidants every day. Most fruits and vegetable have anywhere from 1,000 to 1,500 anti-oxidants each, which does not seem like a lot compared to the amount of free-radicals you are taking into your body every single day; about a billion. Vitamins and minerals also contain antioxidants so supplementation is important. You need to do some research and try to find fresh supplements; they tend to lose their potency the longer they sit on the self.

Lets talk about the third important step in your recovery; control of chronic inflammation. It has been proven that free-radicals are involved in every disease and illness out there but it has also been proven that chronic inflammation is also involved in the vast majority of diseases and illness. Scientists are calling chronic inflammation the silent killer. When there is any type of injury, trauma or disease, no matter what the action is, there is a reaction from our body to protect and heal itself – inflammation. We need inflammation in order to heal, its basic function is to make the tiny vessels in our tissue become larger so the white blood cells, that normally don’t fit, can now squeeze into these small spaces and begin the healing process. With IBS the inflammation response becomes angry, and instead of helping the body, it turns on itself creating chronic inflammation.

Inflammation starts with the COX 2 enzyme. COX 1 preserves platelet function (needed for blood clotting) and protects the stomach lining. COX 2 causes inflammation and pain. COX 2 has been found in brain and spinal cord tumors as well as in the brains of Alzheimer’s patents causing degeneration of the brain tissue from the chronic inflammation.

The best solution is a natural food source that inhibits the inflammation and pain problems that are associated with COX 2 without disturbing the COX 1 that is critical in protecting the stomach lining and the bloods ability to clot.

The South East Asians have been eating and using a fruit called Mangosteen for centuries to treat all types of aliments. Scientists have been studying the mangosteen fruit for the last 20 years; they are in agreement with the South East Asian people that it heals without side effects. The Mangosteen fruit decreases the level of COX 2 in your body. Mangosteen can aid in the healing process, it helps to ensure that inflammation doesn’t turn into chronic inflammation which then leads to chronic disease. How dose Mangosteen do this? One word -Xanthones. Xanthones can only be found in nature. They have been widely studied for their medicinal properties. Xanthones support microbiological balance and sustain the immune system. Xanthones are stable, super charged anti-oxidants. Xanthones are diverse in their abilities to help heal the body; there is a natural anti-inflammatory xanthone within the mangosteen fruit juice. Xanthones can destroy more than one free-radical at a time, unlike normal antioxidants, due to carbon bonds that make them very stable. Each Xanthone performs a specific biological function inside the body unlike regular anti-oxidants. Two hundred xanthones have been identified in nature, 41 are in the Mangosteen fruit alone and you can compare that to the Aloe Vera plant which contains only one xanthone. One thing about xanthones you need to know is they must be consumed in their natural form.

Scientists have also been in a buzz about the amount of antioxidants this fruit contains. The Mangosteen fruit juice has an amazing 25,000 antioxidants. Science has proven that this fruit has the most powerful and the largest number of antioxidants in nature to date. The Mangosteen fruit juice has been providing thousands of people with medicinal benefits.

Let me summarize for you: reduce your stress level, improve your level of beneficial bacteria, consume large quantities of anti-oxidants, and take a natural anti-inflammatory. All of the above will help you to recover from these debilitating and humbling diseases.

You need a product that will assist with your overall health needs visit:

This amazing juice called Mangosteen is backed up by years of scientific studies done by individual Universities and Scientists click here for more information.

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Morning Sickness: Causes and Cures

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Morning sickness is often the first sign of pregnancy, as it can start as early as 2 weeks after conception. Despite the name, the sufferer can feel ill at any time of the day, although as an empty stomach is thought to be one of the triggers then mornings are a common time for it to appear.

Not every pregnant woman will experience morning sickness, although most do to some degree, and it can vary from a feeling of mild nausea or queasiness ranging up to feeling truly dreadful and unable to keep any food or liquids down. The severity of the effects seems to be greatest in women with a history of migraine or travel sickness.

It’s not known exactly what causes it, but most doctors agree that the changes in hormone levels that pregnancy triggers are the most major factor. One of the effects of these hormones is to change the way your digestive system works, which can lead to higher levels of acid.

Another possible cause is that many women experience a heightened sense of taste and smell while pregnant, which can make nausea feel worse when unpleasant or strong odours are around.

Finally, tiredness and stress play a part, and most pregnant women are tired and stressed a lot of the time!

Morning sickness can occur over the full range of your pregnancy, but most women find that it more or less disappears by around 14 weeks as hormone levels in the body stabilise.

There are dozens and dozens of traditional ‘cures’ for the feelings of nausea, with every mother having an opinion on the subject! The fact is that every woman’s body is different and so no single thing will work for everyone. However, there are some simple things to try which can help most feel better.

As previously mentioned, an empty stomach can be a cause, so snack little and often to keep hunger at bay, and keep a couple of biscuits by your bed for if you wake up during the night.

Sucking on an ice cube can help, as can fizzy drinks. Fresh ginger is reputed to calm the stomach, so making a tea from crushed root ginger or even chewing on a piece can be worth a try.

Remedies for travel sickness can also help, so it might be worth trying the magnetic wristbands you can buy, but you should never take any medication while pregnant without consulting your doctor.

Morning sickness is a natural part of pregnancy and will not harm your baby in any way, but in severe cases you may be unable to keep any food or fluids down and if this continues you could become dehydrated, which is very dangerous for your baby. If your urine starts to become very dark in colour this is a sign that your fluid levels are too low, and you should speak to your midwife or doctor.

Finally, when you’re in a bout of morning sickness, don’t worry too much about what you’re eating – getting enough energy is more important than a balanced diet at that moment, so if chocolate makes you feel better then go for it! You can always stock up on healthier foods when the sickness has abated a little.

Simone is a contributor to a Parenting Guide web site where you can read more on aspects of pregnancy and babies, including a more detailed morning sickness article and information on pain relief in childbirth.

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Morgellons Disease: Am I Crazy Or What?

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Envision a nightmare of horror, conspiracy, medical mystery, human suffering and yet being called crazy by your doctor or others. Imagine you might have Morgellons Disease.

People who suffer from Morgellons Disease will tell you it is as if “am insect is crawling under their skin”. They may have a number of symptoms but in most cases it boils down to unexplained skin rashes and eczemas and the appearance of fibers and granules coming out of their skin. Some have said that they have seen insects or some type of parasite emerging to fly away from under their skin. Often sufferers have had bouts of Lyme disease as well. Lyme disease is the most common tick borne disease in the United States whose incidence and reported incidence is rising alarmingly. Like Morgellons Disease, Lyme disease was a poorly known or diagnosed disease. Suffers were often labeled by their doctors as suffering of imaginary diseases – they were at the least hypochondriacs and perhaps psychotic. Like Morgellons disease Lyme disease affects suffers with a myriad of symptoms – many of them similar to Morgellons including rashes, eczemas and neurological conditions. Unlike Morgellons disease Lyme disease is now recognized as a valid disease that can be identified through medical diagnostic skills and lab tests. It is now known and appreciated that early treatment of Lyme disease with antibiotics can result in an excellent treatment and prevention of many of the symptoms and complications resulting from untreated Lyme disease . Further it is now appreciated with Lyme Disease delayed or inadequate treatment may result in a condition for the poor patient which is both very disabling and may very difficult to treat. The same approach and understanding can not be said for Morgellons Disease sufferers.

The actual pathogen that is causing Morgellons disease is at the present unknown. It may be an old infection that has been around for eons. It may be a new type of infection that has come into play through evolution, international travel, the destruction of the Amazon and African rain forests or even outer space. It may be a new type of infection – a parasite, a worm, bacteria, a virus, a preon or something not even known yet. Nobody knows. Perhaps it is even transmitted in a latent fashion similar to mad cow disease.

The symptoms of patients presenting with Morgellons are varied and unfortunately for the sufferer may match several other medical conditions most of which are widely known and that medical students and physicians are taught to quickly recognize and treat.

A well known axiom of medical training is “to always go for the most common disease “when diagnosing and treating.”. Unfortunately the sufferer of Morgellons may be incorrectly diagnosed for years and years as time goes on and the disease progresses. They may be told that they have “scabies which is also a mite or small insect manifestation. They may be told that they have nothing more than standard run of the mill lice which is also an infestation of parasitic insects. They may be told that they have “Impetigo” which is a skin rash caused by bacteria The eczema may be diagnosed as simple run of the mill eczema which “happens all the time” and may be the result of simple allergies at different times of the year or as a result of changes of detergents to wash their clothes or foods that they have eaten.. They may even be told that their skin rash is a result of “bad nerves” and be given tranquillizers to quell their anxieties. Perhaps they are told that they have ” Neurodermatitis ” and that as a result of their allergies or nerves they have made their lesion worse by constant scratching of the sores. If they live in a hotter humid climate such as Florida they may be told that that they have a very hardy resistant fungal infection of their skin, nail or nail beds called Tinea. Their skin infection may have been explained by common terms that really are descriptive of the condition without identifying any real cause or treatment. These descriptive disease names commonly described include “Folliculitis : which is an infection of the hair follicles or roots , “Cellulitis” or skin infection or “Seborrhea : which is a condition of skin rash due to overactive sebaceous glands such as is seen in teenagers with acne.

At the worst the Morgellons disease sufferer will be blamed themselves for their condition either for compulsive skin picking , drug side effects , drug addiction or at the very end of the scale as having ” Delusional parasistosis ” that is tactile hallucinations of insects , snakes or other vermin crawling over their skin. Lots of luck.

Patients who claim to have Morgellons Disease describe the polysymptomatic syndrome as primarily characterized by skin lesions and the appearance of fibers and granules coming out of the skin.

And yet whether real or delusional the symptoms reported by those they have Morgellons seem real enough and even horrific to those who are convinced that they are suffering. It is as if there is a sensation of bugs or worms crawling and biting under their skin. Often these people claim that they see the organisms actually crawling out and emerging from their skin along with odd fibers or filaments. What a nightmare of human suffering.

Margaret Mathews

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A Gathering of Gallstones

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Many people are afflicted with gallstones whether they realize they have them or not. What are gallstones? They are hardened masses that may vary in size, usually consisting mainly of cholesterol and bile. They may be caused by a variety of conditions such as infection, too much fat in the diet, anemia, liver disease, obesity, diabetes and even pregnancy. People that are overweight seem to be more prone to gallstones as are women who have had two or more pregnancies.

Although it is not known why, women in general seem to have a higher incidence of gallstones than men. Symptoms usually include pain or discomfort in the abdomen as well as nausea and indigestion. But many people that have gallstones have no symptoms at all. Often people do not know they have gallstones until they have a gallbladder attack.

An attack can occur when a stone lodges in the bile duct. This can cause sharp pain on the right side of the abdomen that may travel to the back and shoulder blade. Symptoms may also include fever, chills, vomiting and even jaundice, which is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes due to accumulation of bile in the blood.

A stone that becomes lodged could cause serious complications. Surgical removal of the gallbladder may become necessary. Other methods of treatment may include the use of drugs to dissolve stones and the breaking up of the stones by laser technique. Surgery may still be required in some cases.

I found that I had gallstones quite accidentally after being hospitalized for pneumonia. In my case, I had no symptoms and so I was unaware that I had gallstones. They never caused any pain, nausea or other symptoms that would have indicated their presence. As you can see, the absence of symptoms doesn’t mean that gallstones aren’t present.

If you do have any of the symptoms described or experience pain or discomfort after eating, you may suspect that you could have gallstones. If you have any reason to believe that may be the case you should contact your physician immediately for early detection rather than waiting until a severe gallbladder attack occurs. Once detection of gallstones is confirmed your physician can recommend surgery or the appropriate course of action. The early detection of the presence of gallstones can prevent the future pain of gallbladder attacks as well as any complications that could arise due to a lodged stone. Sometimes what you don’t know can hurt you.

Jacob Mabille writes for Health Articles and Guides where you can find more health tips and related articles. You may republish this article only if you retain resource box and active hyperlinks.

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Mouth Ulcer – Canker Sore

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A painful sore that is usually red with a white coating appearing inside the mouth is a mouth ulcer or canker sore. These sores can appear in different parts of the mouth; inside the lips, inside cheeks, on the gum or under the tongue. They differ from fever blisters/cold sores in that fever blisters are usually on the outside of the lips also they are not contagious.

Young women in their teens and twenties are more prone to canker sores. Though the cause of these sores are not known, it is thought they might be caused by stress, poor nutrition, allergies to food and menstrual periods.

In severe cases, the sore can be as large as an inch wide and may leave scars. Usually more than one sore will erupt at a time. The duration of healing time is around two weeks.

They are not thought to be inherited, even though some family members all share the same experience of having canker sores. Some people will only have one or two episodes of canker sores a year, while others have them most of the time.

Virus is not the cause of a canker sore, but an allergy to a specific bacteria found in the mouth may be the cause, or may simply be an allergic reaction to certain kinds of food. An immune system not working correctly may trigger the sores, but they are not connected to any disease. Some studies have found nutritional deficiencies can cause canker sores, such as vitamin B12, folic acid and iron. Persons with gastrointestinal problems sometimes have reoccurring canker sores, due to their digestive problems.

More women have these mouth ulcers than men do, so it is figured perhaps the female sex hormones contribute to the problem. During the menstrual cycles, many women have occurrences of canker sores, but during pregnancy are not bothered with them. Hormone therapy has been used successfully in the treatment of women. An injury to the mouth can bring on this type of mouth ulcer. Also, stress is a factor in bringing on a sore.

There are blood and allergy tests one can have to find out what may be causing the sores. If it’s found to be a nutritional deficiency, then vitamin supplements can be taken to prevent these sores from forming. If there is a food allergy found, then avoiding those foods will help to cut down on the occurrence of these mouth ulcers.

Treatments for relieving the pain are benzocaine, which can be purchased over-the-counter without prescription. Anti-inflammatory mouth rinses require a prescription and are usually only given in severe cases. The mouth rinses work to reduce the pain and do help in healing. Using the tetracycline mouth rinse several times a day will start to reduce the pain in around twenty-four hours. However, the tetracycline can permanently stain teeth in children.

Canker sores can be a lot more painful than fever blisters since the sore is inside the mouth. Eating, drinking, brushing teeth all can irritate the sore. It’s wise to avoid foods that are salty, such as potato chips and popcorn; also acidic and spicy foods. Care should be taken when brushing teeth so as not to jab the gums or cheek with the brush.

Researchers have found in analyzing peoples’ immune systems a difference in ones who are susceptible to canker sores and those who are not. They have not yet determined whether a weak immune system is a cause for these mouth ulcers.

New drugs are being tested and developed to treat canker sores and some appear to be effective, but they first have to be approved by the FDA.

Michael Russell
Your Independent guide to Lake Tahoe

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Frequent Urination

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Frequent urination implies that one need to urinate quite often. It is in fact, a sudden and a compelling urge to urinate which causes discomfort in the bladder. Frequency in urination at night is called “nocturia.” Thus is due to nocturia that mostly the middle aged and the aged people had to get up in the early morning hours for urination. Frequent urination is also known as frequency is thus a sign of certain form of abnormality in an individual which is the outcome of a person who suffers from sugar (diabetes), bacteria (UTI), hematurai etc.

Causes of frequent urination:

Frequent urination is considered to be certain classic signs of urinary tract infection (UTI). Some of the common causes of frequent urination are:

- Diabetes, pregnancy and certain problems of the prostate are considered as certain common causes of frequent urination symptoms.

- Besides them, an ongoing inflammation of the bladder, commonly experienced by the women, which is known as interstitial cystitis also causes frequent urination.

- Intake of diuretics, like coffee, cranberry juice and some other forms of medications also lead to frequent urination.

- Drinking too much of fluid, like caffeine and alcohol also leads to frequent urination.

- Normal phase of aging is yet another factor which is considered to be responsible for frequent urination.

- Certain bladder like Cystitis, Multiple sclerosis, Bladder carcinoma, bladder tumor and kidney conditions like Nephritis, kidney stones, kidney failure etc. are also largely responsible for frequency in urination.

- Urinary tract infection is a very important cause of frequency. UTI leads to the development of the sensation of burning and pain in the process of urination.

- Vollovaginitis is a factor which is similar to UTI. It is caused due to the opening of the urethra around the vaginal area, thereby causing itching and irritation in and around the areas of the vagina. Especially during the stage of puberty, this symptom is on the high rise.

- Pollakiuria, is a condition which affects basically children of the age group between 3 to 8 years thus leading to frequency. This is a factor which is basically related with stress in one’s life, which leads to the process of frequency more than 10 to 30 times in a day. This cause is however very much temporary which flashes away with the passage of time.

Diagnostic tests for frequent urination:

Frequency needs proper diagnosis. A proper diagnosis of frequent urination can be assorted out through proper physical examination. For proper diagnosis it is important first of all to examine the state of hydration, examine the blood pressure and the body temperature. Further it is also important to examine the abdomen for loin or for any bladder tenderness. It is also important to make a proper examination of the vaginal discharges. These various tests can be performed through cystometry, certain neurological tests, cystoscopy and ultrasonography. Thus a proper diagnosis of these various features will help in the proper treatment of the frequent urination, through undertaking of certain antibiotics and medicines.

The readers are welcome to know about the various facts related to frequent urination over this site . Comments from the readers are expected from the author, Farzina Naznin at

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Dyslexia – The Building Blocks Of Learning

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Dyslexia, a specific difficulty with the learning of literacy skills, is the most common and best-defined learning disability. Moreover, after thirty years of steadily expanding research of excellent quality, it is the condition which – for sufferers and professionals alike – has made the most progress in identification and remediation. There is now good agreement about:

- the value of early identification
- the utility of structured, multisensory, cumulative teaching methods
- the support structures that need to be maintained throughout academic life, after the period of intensive tuition is past.

This short article will look at this sequence, as well as the area where disagreement remains, essentially about the value of IQ in psychological assessment – or the so-called discrepancy definition.

Early identification
Thus far, there are nine genes that are known to be responsible for dyslexia and, theoretically, more are needed. Though dyslexic tendencies, inherited, may not always be fully expressed in children, there is a multiplied risk when there is some dyslexia on both sides of the family.

Because dyslexia is thought of as a species of language disorder, this development is most often seen in delayed or anomalous speech development in the pre-school years. For instance, children may muddle the constituent sounds or sequences of sounds in words – car park – par cark, spaghetti – basgetti – and may not be interested in books and nursery rhymes.

From the first day of school, young children may start to feel that this place is not for them; and, even if they settle well, early experience of being unable to do certain things may be baffling, disappointing and corrosive to them. A lowering of self-esteem may set in and prove very hard to reverse. It is important to emphasise that these trends are usually well-established by the age of seven.

The earlier the age at which the problem is accurately identified and skilfully addressed, the better the outcome.

Professional assessment is the first step towards clarifying the nature of the difficulty. Educational psychologists are scarce, but nowadays many specialist teachers are trained to use good quality tests with children and adults. An early indication of the extent and severity of any literacy-learning problem is valuable.

Specialist teaching
Following a positive identification of dyslexia, individual specialist tuition should be sought for the child (or adult). This is best delivered by a specially trained teacher, one holding a postgraduate diploma in dyslexia from an accredited course, who will be able to build on the psychological assessment and review progress thereafter.

Typically, there is an emphasis on the foundation elements – letter shapes, sounds and combinations – in alphabetic literacy. These may be shaky even if the individual appears to have left this stage behind, so a return to secure basic structures is often a feature of an individual learning programme. Each structure of level is secured through practice and repetition before another is added. These building blocks create an edifice of skills that remains secure lifelong, even if underlying problems – of limited short-term memory and slow processing – remain.

Continuing support
After progress is made with fundamental phonics and morphology, the pupil may be able to resume normal classroom and curriculum progress without continuing tuition. Nevertheless, it behoves teachers to continue to be aware, as the pupil progresses to secondary school, of the accommodations in the classroom that might lighten the load:

- Keep instructions short and issue them one at a time.

- Break down longer instructions into smaller chunks.

- Repeat key words and phrases.

- Allow time for processing – he or she may need extra time to think through what has been said.

- Check that the pupil has understood – by asking him or her to retell what they have to do (not in public): children should not be allowed to become dependent on their friends for information.

- If a child is sitting close to the teacher, for instance near the front of the class, making such a check discreetly is much easier.

- Tasks involving codes and sequences, such as copying information from the board or transferring from one sheet to another, may pose problems.

- If possible, the need to copy should be eliminated altogether, including by the provision of worksheets and photocopies of work (e.g. sentences to be completed) or lists of instructions for homework.

- When questioned, children with processing difficulties may take longer to find words and retrieve what they want to say, necessitating some patience on the part of the teacher and the class.

- The pupil may need a dictaphone to get key information down when taking notes further up the school.

This awareness is particularly important as the individual progresses through secondary education towards examination-based syllabi, when tuition itself becomes ancillary to the main task of preparing for examinations. At this stage, we relate such support to study skills – note-taking, question reading, essay planning, revision timetables, mind-mapping and so on (see, e.g., Cogan and Fletcher, 2004 ). The provision of access arrangements – extra time, use of computer – may be an important contribution to levelling the playing field up to, and including, further and higher education.

The logic of assessment
The use of intelligence measures as an integral part of psychological assessment remains somewhat controversial, but this may have to do with the perceived unfairness of nature in assigning different levels of ability to people. The argument against including measures of IQ in assessment relies upon criticisms of the method of evaluating different levels of development in impaired and unimpaired processes. It becomes easier to accept this argument if one sees little relationship between intelligence and learning.

The argument for including intelligence measurement in assessment is so as to be fair with respect to all levels of intellectual ability. Historically, dyslexia has been seen – and still is seen – as a contrast between impaired and unimpaired abilities and IQ is a legitimate by-product of the general survey of skills and abilities that is necessary if an individual assessment is to proceed without assumptions in impartial and neutral fashion. The use of high quality tests makes it possible to obtain objective evidence, impartially evaluated according to explicit criteria.

Tests And Assessments from NFER Nelson

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Beating the “Winter Blues”

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Come January, when the euphoria of the holidays has faded and the days are short, a sense of melancholy is pervasive among northerners. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), commonly referred to as the “winter blues,” is marked by feelings of lethargy, depression, lack of appetite and lack of desire to have sex.

It may surprise you to learn that sunlight deprivation can cause all of these symptoms and more. Though not often taken seriously, perhaps because it is perceived as temporary, seasonal depression can be debilitating. In some cases, it may even lead to chronic depression that does not go away with the onset of summer.

In a recent report from the Canadian Journal of Diagnosis (Canadian Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of SAD; source:; 2006), studies show women are four times as likely as men to experience SAD. The study also showed that most people experience SAD during winter months over a 60-90 day period, and for at least two years in a row.

Sunlight is not just an aspect of the world we live in, or food for plants and trees. Sunlight is an essential ingredient in human health. Sunlight fuels serotonin production, a neurotransmitter that helps to regulate your mood. Inadequate serotonin production is a primary cause of chronic depression, and many of the anti-depressant drugs on the market are designed to increase serotonin levels.

Adequate exposure to sunlight is also required in order to produce Vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is linked to many diseases and disorders, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and even cancer. The single best source of Vitamin D is sunlight; more than milk and other foods rich in Vitamin D. Studies show that Vitamin D supplements can help reduce symptoms of SAD.

While lack of sunlight is the main cause, other related factors contribute to seasonal depression. For example, with limited daylight and cold temperatures, people exercise less. Studies show that exercise releases endorphins, which give you a sense of well being. More importantly, regular exercise increases your serotonin and dopamine levels, which helps you to feel a sense of happiness and calm throughout the day.

The treatment of choice for SAD is light box therapy, specifically a fluorescent light box. With daily usage, patients usually feel noticeably better within one week. There are many different types of light boxes, and there are very specific guidelines to follow; position of the light box and duration of exposure are among the variables.

It’s always best to seek medical guidance rather than self-diagnosing and purchasing your light box online. People who suffer from depression or other mood disorders in other months of the year may need medication to treat SAD, or a combination of medication and light therapy. Light therapy boxes can be expensive, but some insurance companies will cover most or all of the expense if prescribed by a physician.

Of course, one of the best ways to treat a mild case of the “winter blues” is to get out in the sun. Make a practice of taking a thirty-minute walk in the sun each day, especially during mid-day when the sun is at its brightest. You will get the benefits of sunlight exposure, fresh air, and exercise, at the same time. Go for a walk during your lunch break, or take the dog for a longer walk after work. Whatever you choose to do outside, just get out. It can make a world of difference in your mood.

Karen Fusco is co-founder of which supports Busy Moms with free gift ideas and helpful tips to meet the challenges of motherhood. She is also co-founder of, a directory of articles covering many areas of wellness. Karen can be reached directly at:

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